Discussion response

Learning Goal: I’m working on a health & medical multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ posts on two different days and provide additional insight that might be useful and appropriate for the issue addressed. Use your learning resources and/or evidence from the literature to support your position.

Primary Prevention of Osteoporosis

In the management of osteoporosis, primary prevention has been found to be effective in delaying the onset or even preventing the development of the conditions. According to Gupta and Wood(2019), primary prevention is a cost effective and results effective means of maintaining good health in patients.Primary prevention options for osteoporosis include dietary supplementation with calcium and vitamin D, weight bearing exercises and lifestyle practices such as the avoidance of cigarette smoking. Calcium and vitamin D are two important nutrients involved in the process of bone formation. Supplementing diets with these nutrients ensures that the patient has enough of them to maintain a healthy bone formation process. According to Pal et al (2021), cigarette smoking leads to alterations in calciotropic hormone metabolism and intestinal calcium absorption, dysregulation in sex hormone production and metabolism, alterations in adrenal cortical hormone metabolism and in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B. All these processes lead to an increase in the chances of development of osteoporosis. Stopping cigarette smoking will reverse these negative effects and promote healthier bone formation.


Education on osteoporosis

As part of the management of osteoporosis, education is a very important tool to utilize. Education of prevention practices and management options are very important. In older patients who are at increased risk, it is important to educate on the process of bone formation and bone resorption. Mitigative practices such as supplementation with vitamin D and calcium should be included in the education. The benefits of physical exercise, especially weight bearing exercise should be emphasized and the effects of cigarette smoking also emphasized. The increased risks of fractures due to loss of bone mineral density is an important part to include in the education of patients. Treatment options such as bisphosphonates, their mechanisms of actions and side effects should also be included.

Personal face to face education is the most effective means of educating individuals on this condition. This will give patients the chance to ask questions directly and receive answers which are helpful to them. In addition, brochures can be created and handed out to patients. With the advancements in information technology, educational information can also be made available online to be assessed by patients whenever needed.



Gupta,R., & Wood,D.A.(2019).Primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease: populations, individuals, and health professionals.The Lancet. 2019, Vol. 394, Issue 10199, pages. 685

Pal,R., Bhadada,S.K., & Dhiman,V.(2021).Prevention of vertebral fractures in primary osteoporosis with once-weekly teriparatide: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases, 6(2), 84–90. https://doi.org/10.4103/jncd.jncd_11_21

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